Visceral Pain Receptors
Visceral pain receptors are found on the serosa surface, in the mesentery, within intestinal muscles, and mucosa of hollow organs.
Pain is initiated when receptors are stimulated by excessive contraction, stretching, tension or ischemia of the walls of hollow viscera, the capsule of a solid organ (liver, spleen, kidney), or of the mesentery.
Increased contraction of the smooth muscle of hollow viscera may be caused by infection, toxins, ulceration, inflammation, or ischemia. Increased hepatic capsule tension may be secondary to passive congestion or inflammation (hepatitis).
Afferent fibers involved in processing visceral pain are unmyelinated C-fibers that enter the spinal cord bilaterally, resulting in dull, poorly localized pain.
Visceral pain is often of gradual onset.
How to examine, refer or treat patients with visceral pain?
All the answers in the book "Scientific Osteopathy Approach to Patients with Abdominal Pain.
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