treating perimenopausal women in the osteopathic concept

Estrogen (E2) synthesis in the brain and age related decline

The estrogen receptor network

• One of the brain’s master regulatory systems is the estrogen receptor network. Under its influence, the brain effectively responds at proper timescales to regulate brain energy metabolism, such as in the ovarian-neural estrogen axis.
• Changes in either the availability of estrogen or its receptor network can affect intracellular signaling, neural circuit function, and energy availability.
• The basic product to make estrogen is cholesterol or testosterone.
• Enzymes and cholesterol synthesize E2.
• Aromatase (final enzyme to synthesize estrogen) is found in regions of the basal forebrain, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and brainstem.
• Local E2 production may be important for specific brain functions. When aromatase is missing, behavior disturbances such as aggressivity and other locomotive behaviors are seen in animal studies.
• The brain produces its own E2, in addition to utilizing circulating E2. 

Age related decline in E2

• While age-related decline in serum E2 levels can easily been shown, brain levels of E2 can however significantly differ from circulating levels.

The level of E2 synthesis during aging is a critical biochemical change in a woman’s life and sharp reduction of E2 during the menopausal period is commonly associated with various complaints and even diseases seen in postmenopausal women as well as a decline of cognitive function.

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 Treating perimenopausal women in the osteopathic concept

 

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